Research Terms of Reference: Multi-Sectoral Needs Assessment (MSNA) – North West Nigeria NGA2105 (03.03.2022, 1.2) – Nigeria


2. Rationale

2.1 Background

North West Nigeria, one of the country’s six geopolitical zones, with over 40 million people, comprises seven of the country’s 36 states. They are Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara. Most of the population, around 80%, is made up of farmers, herders or agro-herders.

Over the past decade, and particularly since 2014, the 7 states that make up the North West region of Nigeria have experienced deadly inter-communal conflict and organized crime, resulting in the displacement of over 200,000 people, as well as the death and disappearance of thousands more. Moreover, the ongoing conflict has accelerated poverty, while millions of people are said to lack access to health care, clean water and childhood vaccinations.

Underlying the growing insecurity and extreme poverty in the region is land desertification caused by climate change, which has deprived millions of herders and farmers of their main source of livelihood. The displacement crisis is compounded by the recent floods which, since August 2020, have destroyed tens of thousands of homes and hundreds of thousands of hectares of crops.

Historically, three states in northwestern Nigeria – Katsina, Sokoto and Zamfara – are closely intertwined and suffer equally from banditry and terrorism. Until 1996, Zamfara was part of the Sokoto region, and socio-economic ties between the two remain strong. The struggle for control of natural resources, including mines, water resources and pastures between herders and farmers has morphed into communal clashes, conflicts, banditry and criminality causing forced displacement in rural areas of the northwest Nigeria, mainly in the states of Zamfara, Katsina and Sokoto. resulted in around 8,000 deaths, 70,000 Nigerian refugees crossed into the Republic of Niger, dispersed in around 20 villages in the Maradi region and there are 186,820 in the 3 affected states (according to 2021 data).

In resolving such a complex humanitarian situation, little effort was made to assess the humanitarian needs in the region at the state level. Existing studies are limited to examining phenomena of conflict and banditry, the influence of climate change on the humanitarian situation and assessments of (multi-)sectoral needs in specific regions. Therefore, unlike in North East Nigeria, no attempt was made to conduct a comprehensive multi-sectoral needs assessment covering three states at once. Findings from existing assessments have either a limited geographic scope or mixed methods of data collection, which does not allow for the generation of representative findings.

2.2 Expected impact

North West Nigeria is not covered by the Humanitarian Project Cycle Framework; however, this does not mean that there is no humanitarian coordination system. UNICEF, in co-leadership with the INGO Forum, organizes monthly coordination meetings and provides ad hoc coordination services. The current assessment will contribute by (1) bringing a positive change in the daily life of the population of interest (2) improving the understanding of the current situation to inform ongoing or planned humanitarian interventions (3) improving the understanding of the current situation situation to inform strategic decision-making processes, including funding allocations

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