facts about fentanyl | | timesnews.net
WHAT IS FENTANYL?
Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use as an analgesic (pain relief) and anesthetic. It is about 100 times more potent than morphine and 50 times more potent than heroin as a pain reliever.
WHAT IS ITS ORIGIN ?
Fentanyl was first developed in 1959 and introduced in the 1960s as an intravenous anesthetic. It is manufactured and legally distributed in the United States. Legal fentanyl pharmaceuticals are diverted through theft, fraudulent prescriptions, and illicit distribution by patients, doctors and pharmacists.
From 2011 to 2018, fatal overdoses associated with the abuse of fentanyl and fentanyl analogues produced clandestinely and encounters with law enforcement increased significantly. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, fentanyl analgesics were implicated in about 2,600 drug overdose deaths each year in 2011 and 2012, but from 2012 to 2018, the number of drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl and other synthetic opioids has increased dramatically each year. More recently, there has been a re-emergence of the trafficking, distribution and abuse of illicitly produced fentanyl and fentanyl analogues, with a dramatic increase in the number of overdose deaths, from 2,666 in 2011 to 31 335 in 2018.
What are the common street names?
Common street names include: Apache, China Girl, China Town, Dance Fever, Friend, Goodfellas, Great Bear, He-Man, Jackpot, King Ivory, Murder 8, and Tango & Cash.
What does it look like?
Fentanyl pharmaceuticals are currently available in the following dosage forms: oral transmucosal lozenges commonly known as fentanyl “lollipops” (Actiq®), effervescent buccal tablets (Fentora®), sublingual tablets (Abstral®), sublingual sprays (Subsys ®), nasal sprays (Lazanda®), transdermal patches (Duragesic®) and injectable formulations.
Clandestinely produced fentanyl comes in powder or counterfeit tablet form and is sold alone or in combination with other drugs such as heroin or cocaine.
How is it abused?
Fentanyl can be injected, snorted / snorted, smoked, taken orally as a pill or tablet, and added to blotting paper. Fentanyl patches are abused by removing its gel content and then injecting or ingesting this content.
Patches were also frozen, cut into pieces and placed under the tongue or in the cheek cavity. Illicitly produced fentanyl is sold alone or in combination with heroin and other substances and has been identified in counterfeit pills, mimicking pharmaceutical drugs such as oxycodone. According to the National Forensic Laboratory Information System, reports of fentanyl (both pharmaceutical and clandestinely produced) have increased from nearly 5,400 in 2014 to more than 56,500 in 2017, according to reports from federal, state forensic laboratories. and local in the United States.
What is the effect on the body?
Fentanyl, similar to other commonly used opioid pain relievers (eg, morphine), produces effects such as relaxation, euphoria, pain relief, sedation, confusion, drowsiness, dizziness, nausea, urinary retention, constriction pupillary and respiratory depression.
What are the effects of overdose?
Overdose can lead to stupor, pupil size changes, cold clammy skin, cyanosis, coma and respiratory failure leading to death. The presence of a triad of symptoms such as coma, point pupils, and respiratory depression are strongly suggestive of opioid poisoning.
Which drugs cause similar effects?
Drugs that cause similar effects include other opioids such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, methadone, and heroin.
What is the legal status in the Federal Control Substances Act?
Fentanyl is a Schedule II narcotic under the United States Controlled Substances Act of 1970.
SOURCE: US Drug Enforcement Agency